Once this is completed, the conversion also adds all of the special characters of the bag. Retrieved 17 April Barcode printer Barcode reader Bottling line Calender Can seamer Cartoning machine Case sealer Check weigher Conveyor system Extended core stretch wrapper Filler Heat gun Heat sealer Industrial robot Injection molding machine Label printer applicator Lineshaft roller conveyor Logistics automation Material handling equipment Mechanical brake stretch wrapper Multihead weigher Orbital stretch wrapper Palletizer Rotary wheel blow molding systems Shrink tunnel Staple gun Tape dispenser Turntable stretch wrapper Vertical form fill sealing machine. Korpella's work has appeared in a variety of publications. Retrieved 15 December
Of course the process of creating the plastic bags is one that must be completed in a shop that has the right equipment, however, despite this fact, the bags are easy to make. To create a plastic bag, the process is similar to the process for creating a book.
Both are very easy to create, but the plastic bag is far easier to create than a book. A company must have special equipment to create the bag, however, there are just two steps required to make the bags. A process called extrusion is the first step in making a plastic bag. An extruder is used to heat the polyethylene plastic to a temperature of about degrees F.
This temperature will melt the pellets, at which time the molten plastic is pushed into the machine and a die that determines the thickness that the bag will have. After this happens, the plastic film is pushed into a bubble by the outside air and through a cooling process. Some bags are sealed for tamper-evident capability, including some where the press-to-reseal feature becomes accessible only when a perforated outer seal is torn away.
Boil-in-bags are often used for sealed frozen foods, sometimes complete entrees. The bags are usually tough heat-sealed nylon or polyester to withstand the temperatures of boiling water. Some bags are porous or perforated to allow the hot water to contact the food: Bag-in-box packaging is often used for liquids such as box wine and institutional sizes of other liquids.
Plastic bags are used for many medical purposes. The non-porous quality of plastic film means that they are useful for isolating infectious body fluids; other porous bags made of nonwoven plastics can be sterilized by gas and maintain this sterility. Bags can be made under regulated sterile manufacturing conditions, so they can be used when infection is a health risk.
They are lightweight and flexible, so they can be carried by or laid next to patients without making the patient as uncomfortable as a heavy glass bottle would be. They are less expensive than re-usable options, such as glass bottles. Moderate quality evidence from a systematic review showed that plastic wraps or bags prevented hypothermia compared to routine care, especially in extremely preterm infants. Flexible intermediate bulk containers are large industrial containers, usually used for powders or flowables.
Open bags with carrying handles are used in large numbers. Stores often provide them as a convenience to shoppers. Some stores charge a nominal fee for a bag.
Heavy-duty reusable shopping bags are often considered environmentally better than single-use paper or plastic shopping bags. Because of environmental and litter problems, some locations are working toward a phase-out of lightweight plastic bags.
American and European patent applications relating to the production of plastic shopping bags can be found dating back to the early s, but these refer to composite constructions with handles fixed to the bag in a secondary manufacturing process. The modern lightweight shopping bag is the invention of Swedish engineer Sten Gustaf Thulin. Thulin's design produced a simple, strong bag with a high load-carrying capacity, and was patented worldwide by Celloplast in From the mids onwards, plastic bags became common for carrying daily groceries from the store to vehicles and homes throughout the developed world.
As plastic bags increasingly replaced paper bags, and as other plastic materials and products replaced glass, metal, stone, timber and other materials, a packaging materials war erupted, with plastic shopping bags at the center of highly publicized disputes.
The main innovation of this redesign is that the removal of a bag from the rack opens the next bag in the stack. The number of plastic bags used and discarded worldwide has been estimated to be on the order of 1 trillion annually. While the average consumer in China uses only 2 or 3 plastic bags a year, the numbers are much higher in most other countries: A large number of cities and counties have banned the use of plastic bags by grocery stores or introduced a minimum charge.
In September , California became the first state to pass a law banning their use. Local manufacturers of plastic bags, under the legislation, would receive financial support to assist them make more durable multi-use bags, that would be sold by grocery stores rather than given away, as were the plastic bags. In India, government has banned use of plastic bags below 50 microns.
Non-compostable plastic bags can take up to years to decompose. Plastic bags are not capable of biodegradation but rather they photodegrade, a process by which the plastic bags are broken down into smaller toxic parts.
In the s, many stores and companies began to use different types of biodegradable bags to comply with perceived environmental benefits. Plastic shopping bags escape the garbage collection process, and are also disposed of improperly and can end up in streams, which then lead them to end up in the open ocean. To mitigate marine plastic pollution from single-use shopping bags, many jurisdictions around the world have implemented bans or fees on the use of plastic bags.
Waterways and drains can be clogged by plastic bags and have been linked to severe flooding. An estimated million plastic bags end up in the Atlantic Ocean alone, due to escaping the garbage. Once death occurs and the animal body decomposes, the plastic reenters the environment, posing more potential problems. The blended resin is fed into extruders where the material is heated to a specific temperature and mixed.
The material in the heated barrel then reaches a molten plastic state and can literally be blown overhead from the extruder into a bubble formation. The bubble is blown vertically 3 stories high, which allows for the proper material distribution and cooling time required before the film is laid flat.
The final step in the extrusion process sends the bubble through a series of rollers to lay the film flat and then wind the film on large cores, resulting in a roll of film weighing several thousands of pounds.
Next, the roll of film reaches the converting department, the area where film is manufactured into bags, and the roll of film is placed into the unwinder. After the film is started on the unwinder, it is treated with an electrostatic wave of current.
This is done so that the film can be properly prepared for the printing procedure, where bags are printed with various messages and logos for our customers.
Plastic bags are popular for a number of reasons. The bags are very cheap and can be used for so many different purposes. And, despite what many people think, the bags can also be recycled and reused a number of times. Creating a plastic bag is a fairly simple process, which is . A plastic bag, polybag, or pouch is a type of container made of thin, flexible, plastic film, nonwoven fabric, or plastic textile. Plastic bags are used for containing and transporting goods such as foods, produce, powders, ice, magazines, chemicals, and waste. The plastic bags have been created and are then distributed to our customers! F or the plastic bags that we produce through our BagBag recycling program, which are made from recycled materials, we take a slightly different approach.